Funded by the Institute for Education Sciences with a grant to Roberta M. Golinkoff, Kathy Hirsh-Pasek, Jill deVilliers, Aquiles Iglesias, and Mary Wilson, Brooks Publishing has brought out our new language screener, developed to find children (ages 3 through 5) with potential language problems. As language is fundamental to children’s success in school and in life, we hope it will be adopted by schools to find children with potential language issues who might linger unnoticed in classrooms. It can be administered on any touchscreen tablet or computer and identifies children for referral. QUILS™ has a monolingual English version and a forthcoming version for children learning both English and Spanish (the QUILS: ES).
Herbert Fingarette, influenced by Sartre’s existential approach, has developed a theory of self-deception that is couched in what he calls the “volition-action” family of terms. According to Fingarette, we can make progress towards understanding self-deception if we replace the old “cognitive-perception” terminology with his new “volition-action” family of terms (2000, p. 33). Whereas the cognitive-perception family of terms emphasizes belief and knowledge, the volition-action family of terms highlights the dynamic and semi-voluntary nature of consciousness. Crucial to Fingarette’s active or dynamic conception of consciousness is the idea that a person can become explicitly aware of something by “spelling it out” to himself. When a person does this, he directs his attention towards the thing in question and makes himself fully and explicitly conscious of it (p. 38). Fingarette describes the self-deceiver as a person who cannot (or will not) spell-out an “engagement” to himself (p. 46). He is unable, or unwilling, to do this because the engagement in question challenges his conception of himself. He cannot “avow” this threatening feature of himself or the world, and so actively prevents himself from doing so. Moreover, the success of his project demands that he avoid spelling-out that he is not spelling-out a particular engagement in the world. In this way, the self-deceiver adopts a strategy or policy that is “self-covering” (p. 47).