Learned Helplessness Critique:
Empirical studies strongly contradict claims of helplessness of battered women in situations of domestic abuse. Lee Bowker in Ending the violence: a guidebook based on the experience of 1,000 battered wives finds that women use up to seven coping strategies (including talking, extracting promises, nonviolent threatening, hiding, passive defense, avoidance, and counterviolence) and seek out "help sources," both informal (such as family, in-laws and neighbors) and formal (such as police and social services institutions). Bowker’s conclusions include the assertion that battered women’s problems are "social, not psychological," and had more to do with "the intransigence of their husbands’ penchant for domination and the lack of support from traditional institutions" than to their passivity or helplessness.
"strike repeatedly, beat violently and rapidly," early 14c., from Old French batre "to beat, strike" (11c., Modern French battre "to beat, to strike"), from Latin battuere "to beat, strike," an old word in Latin, but almost certainly borrowed from Gaulish, from PIE root *bhau- "to strike" (cf. Welsh bathu "beat;" Old English beadu "battle," beatan "to beat," bytl "hammer, mallet"). Began to be widely used 1962 in reference to domestic abuse. Related: Battered ; battering . Battering-ram is an ancient weapon (Latin aries ), but the word attested only from 1610s.